The goal of Organization instruction is to develop performance-based, criterion-referenced instruction that promotes student transfer of learning from the instructional setting to the job. For a learning outcome to be achieved, instruction must be effective and efficient. Instruction is effective when it teaches learning objectives based on job performance requirements and efficient when it makes the best use of resources.
SAT is a comprehensive process that identifies what is performed on the job, what should be instructed, and how this instruction should be developed and conducted. This systematic approach ensures that what is being instructed are those tasks that are most critical to successful job performance. It also ensures that the instructional approach chosen is the most time and cost efficient. The SAT process further identifies standards of performance and learning objectives. This ensures that students are evaluated on their ability to meet these objectives and that instructional courses are evaluated based on whether or not they allow student mastery of these objectives.
Finally, the SAT identifies needed revisions to instruction and allows these revisions to be made to improve instructional program effectiveness and efficiency.
ADDIE stands for the 5 distinct elements of the Systems Approach to Training. Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. Evaluation is also an element of all the elements.
During the Analyze Phase of SAT, a particular job or role is analyzed by the training Organization to determine what job holders perform on the job, the order in which they perform it, and the standard of performance necessary to adequately perform the job. The result, or outcome, of the Analyze Phase is tasks selected for instruction. The elements of the Analyze Phase are:
Job Analysis. Job or occupational analysis is performed to determine what the job holder must know or do on the job. Job analysis results in a verified list of all duties and tasks performed on the job.
Task Analysis. Task analysis (sometimes called Training Analysis) is performed to determine the job performance requirements requisite of each task performed on the job. Job performance requirements include a task statement, conditions, standard, performance steps, administrative instructions, and references. Job performance requirements in the Organization are defined by Standards of Performance. Standards of Performance define the measures of performance that are to be used in diagnosing individual performance and evaluation of instruction.
Selection of Tasks for Instruction. Current instructional needs are determined by selecting tasks for instruction. Tasks are selected based on data collected concerning several criteria relating to each task. A by-product of this process is the determination of the organization responsible for conducting the instruction and the instructional setting assigned to each task.
The outputs of the Analysis Phase, the Performance Standard, become the inputs to the Design Phase. During the Design Phase, the curriculum developer takes the Performance Standard events designated to be taught at the formal school, and attempts to simulate, as closely as possible, the real- world job conditions within the instructional environment. The closer the instruction is to real world job requirements, the more likely it is that the participant will transfer the learning to the job.
The Design Phase consists of these three processes:
Write the Target Population Description (TPD: “Who is coming for instruction and what knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) must/will they bring with them?”
Conduct a Learning Analysis: “What do I have to teach with?” and “What will be taught, evaluated, and how?”
Sequence TLO (Terminal Learning Objectives)s: “In what order will the instruction be taught to maximize both resources and the transfer of learning?”