The purpose of the Analyze Phase is to accurately determine what the Participant must know and do on-the-job. Job Analysis is done through a systematic research process called the Front-End Analysis (FEA) to collect, collate, and report job performance data. Task analysis is accomplished by convening a Subject Matter Expert (SME) conference. This conference, attended by representatives from the line units who are to benefit from the training, curriculum management and functional (FAM) or technical area managers or advisors (TAM) (usually assigned to the school house later in their career), reviews the results of the FEA and produces a draft Course Description document to describe training standards and an outline. SMEs and the Lead Instructional Designer will then determine the instructional setting for each task and finally produce the draft Target Population Description (TPD) and submit it to the lead Technical or Functional Area Manager assigned to the school. In some cases this may be done before an Instructional Designer is assigned to the project.
The results of this phase form the basis for the entire instructional process by clearly defining the target population, what Participants are actually performing on the job, what they will need to learn in the formal school, and what will be learned though managed on-the-job training (MOJT). The Analyze Phase is concerned with generating an inventory of job tasks, selecting tasks for instruction, developing performance requirements, and analyzing tasks to determine instructional setting.
The first step in the Analyze Phase is the completion of a Job Analysis that is conducted through the FEA process. The team collects, examines, and synthesizes data regarding the effected job role. This data may include time in grade, career progression, tasks performed on the job, instructional location, level of instruction, etc. Job analysis is the collection and organization of data that results in a clearly defined description of duties, tasks, and indicative behaviors that define that job. Job analysis involves finding out exactly what the Participant does on the job rather than what the Participant must know to perform the job. The product of job analysis is a verified list of all duties and tasks performed on the job and the identification of those tasks that must be taught in the formal school. Once the Job Analysis is complete, an FEA Report is produced and serves as a key input to the Subject Matter Expert (SME) conference held to define the training standards and determine instructional setting.
Job Analysis Requirements
Job analysis begins once a requirement for training has been identified and validated. Job analysis requirements are typically generated by:
- The introduction of new or better equipment/support systems.
- Organizational changes such as changes in role structure and career field realignments.
- Doctrinal changes required by new laws, organizational rules, KPIs (Key Performance Indicators), and Organization needs. See the section on KPIs.
- Evaluations indicating that a change in instruction is required.
- Direction from higher headquarters.
A task is a behavior performed on the job. A task is defined by specific criteria and must:
- Be a logical and necessary unit of work.
- Be observable and measurable or produce an observable and measurable result.
- Have one action verb and one object.
- Be a specific act done for its own sake.
- Be independent of other actions.
- Have a specific beginning and ending.
- Occur over a short period of time.
To facilitate survey of job incumbents and correlation of survey data, closely related tasks within a task list are grouped by duty area for the purposes of job analysis. A duty area is an organizer of data consisting of one or more tasks performed within one functional area. Duties are generally very broad categories. One or more duties make up a job. A duty may be defined by:
- a system (e.g., Avionics, Warehouse, Vehicle. etc.).
- a function (e.g., Administrative Functions, Analysis Functions).
- a level of responsibility (e.g., Train Logistics Personnel, Supervise IT Personnel).
Initial Task List
The first step in Job Analysis is the development of an initial task list and is conducted primarily by the Technical or Functional Area group within an organization. This process can include the initial identification of duties or functional areas in which the tasks will be organized. An initial task list is developed by a combination of the following means:
- Reviewing technical documentation and references pertaining to the job. This documentation might also be obtained from various sources outside the Organization. These sources may address similar jobs and tasks and have generated materials that may be applicable for task list development
Task List Verification
The next step in Job Analysis involves verifying the task list in terms of accuracy and completeness. Verification ensures that the tasks on the list are actually those performed by members of the OccFld or MOS. Task list verification is normally conducted by one or more of the following methods:
- Administering survey questionnaires to job incumbents
- Conducting interviews with SMEs
- Observing actual job performance of tasks at the job site
- Convening a board of SMEs to review the task list
Refining the Task List
After the data in the previous two steps have been collected, the task list is refined and consolidated. A final review of the task list should be made to ensure all tasks meet the criteria for a task discussed previously in this Section.
Identifying Tasks for Instruction
The final step in job analysis involves identifying specific tasks that may require formal instruction. Some tasks may not be taught because they are relatively simple to perform, are seldom performed, or only minimum job degradation would result if the tasks were not performed. To properly select tasks for instruction, the Advisory group collects data on several criteria relating to each task. This is accomplished through administration of a survey questionnaire sent to job incumbents and SMEs. The data collected represents the judgments of a statistically valid sample of job incumbents and SMEs who are familiar with the job. The responses to the survey are analyzed using statistical analysis procedures. The following criteria may be considered when selecting tasks for instruction and are included in the survey questionnaire administered by the Advisory group.
- Percent of jobholders performing the task
- Percentage of time spent performing the task
- Criticality of the task to the job
- Frequency of task performance
- Probability of inadequate performance
- Task learning difficulty
- Time between job entry and task performance (task delay tolerance)
- Resource constraints at the schoolhouse
Survey responses to each of these criteria are then analyzed and a Front End Analysis Report (FEAR) is produced that will assist in the task analysis and determination of instructional setting.
The second step in the Analyze Phase is to conduct a Task Analysis that sequences and describes observable, measurable behaviors involved in the performance of a task or job. Task analysis is conducted by a SME conference. It involves the systematic process of identifying specific tasks to be trained, and a detailed analysis of each of those tasks in terms of frequency, difficulty, and importance.
The purpose of task analysis is to:
- Define the task list based on SME input.
- Develop the Training Standard that identify the conditions, standards, and performance steps necessary for the successful completion of a task.
- Determine where the tasks will be instructed (formal school or via MOJT at the unit level).
- Produce a target population description that will guide the formal school or unit in the preparation of instruction/training.
Below are questions to ask when performing a Task Analysis:
- How difficult or complex is the task?
- What behaviors are used in the performance of the job?
- How frequently is the task performed?
- How critical is the task to the performance of the job?
- To what degree is the task performed individually, or to what degree is the task part of a set of collective tasks?
- If a subset of a set of collective tasks, what is the relationship between the various tasks?
- What is the consequence if the task is performed incorrectly or is not performed at all?
- To what extent can the task be trained on the job?
- What level of task proficiency is expected following training?
- How critical is the task?
- What information is needed to perform the task? What is the source of information?
- What are the performance requirements?
- Does execution of the task require coordination between other personnel or with other tasks?
- Are the demands (perceptual, cognitive, psychomotor or physical) imposed by the task excessive?
- How often is the task performed during a specified time-frame (i.e., daily, weekly, monthly, yearly)?
- How much time is needed to perform this task?
- What prerequisite skills, knowledge, and abilities are required to perform the task?
- What are the current criteria for acceptable performance?
- What are the desired criteria?
- What behaviors distinguish good performers from poor performers?
- What behaviors are critical to the performance of the task?
Training Standard Development
Once the task list is finalized, performance requirements must be developed for every task selected for instruction. This becomes the standard performance.
- Task. The task describes what the job holder must do.
- Condition(s). The conditions set forth the real-world circumstances in which the tasks are to be performed. Conditions describe the equipment and resources needed to perform the task and the assistance, location, safety considerations, etc., that relate to performance of the task.
- Standard(s). Standards provide the proficiency level expected when the task is performed. Standards can measure a product, a process, or a combination of both. Standards must reflect a description of how well the task must be performed. This standard can cite a technical manual or doctrinal reference or can be defined in terms of completeness, time, and accuracy.
- Performance Step(s). Performance steps specify the actions required to accomplish a task. Performance steps follow a logical progression.
- Reference(s). References are doctrinal publications (e.g., technical manuals, field manuals, industry references such as the PRMS Petroleum Resources Management System, Organization Orders, etc.) that provide guidance in performing the task in accordance with the given conditions and standards. References cited should be current and readily available to the Participant.
- Administrative Instructions. Administrative instructions provide the instructor with special circumstances relating to the standard performance, such as simulation requirements and safety or real world limitations, which may be a prerequisite to successful accomplishment of the standard performance
- External Support Requirements. Each event will contain a listing of the external support requirements needed for event completion (e.g., range, support aircraft, targets, training devices, other personnel, and non-organic equipment).
- Sustainment Interval. The period, expressed in number of months, between evaluation or retraining requirements to refresh perishable skills and assure readiness. Skills and capabilities acquired through the accomplishment of training events are to be refreshed at pre-determined intervals. Those intervals, known as sustainment intervals, are developed by the Technical or Functional Area Advisory Group
The third process in the Analyze Phase involves determining the instructional setting for each individual training standard task behavior. Instructional setting is important because it defines who is responsible for instructing the task and the level of proficiency the Participant must achieve when performing the task in an instructional environment. The Technical or Functional Area Advisory Group is responsible for determining the organization responsible for conducting the instruction and the level of instruction assigned to each task. This is done during the SME Conference while events are being developed. When determining instructional setting, two guiding factors must be used — effectiveness and efficiency. The Organization seeks the best training possible within acceptable and affordable costs while meeting the learning requirement.
- Responsibility for Instruction. Once the job is defined and the events are developed, the job structure can be broken down into organizations that will assume responsibility for instruction. The tasks must be divided into four groups:
a. Those that are to be included in a formal learning program.
b. Those that are to be included in a Managed On-the-Job-Training (OJT) program.
c. Those that can be covered via computer-based instruction or via simulation.
d. Those for which no formal or OJT is needed (i.e., can be learned by using job performance aids or self study packets).